Information for

Logo VIS

Dynamic Graph Visualization

Dynamic graphs encode the change of relations between object over time, and as that, are a very flexible and general data encoding. Visualizing these graphs, in particular, for larger data sets and when additional information is available such as a hierarchical organization of the objects is a challenging task. Many data dimensions have to be represented at the same time:

  • the graph vertices (objects)
  • the edges induced by the graph (relations)
  • the weights of the edges
  • the inclusion edges induced by the hierarchy
  • the evolution of the graph over time

State-of-the-Art Report

We surveyed the field of dynamic graph visualization in a EuroVis 2014 State-of-The-Art Report (STAR). Already more than 120 papers have been published in this growing field of research, among them about 60 unique visualization techniques. We classified the techniques into a simple hierarchical taxonomy and made our literature collection also available as an interactive database.

Taxonomy of dynamic graph visualization techniques.

Taxonomy of dynamic graph visualization techniques.

Animated Node-Link Diagrams

Traditional approaches use a time-to-time mapping and show the time-varying graph data as animated sequences of node-link diagrams. Though this visualization strategy is very intuitive it also has some drawbacks:

  • if the graphs are very dense, i.e. have many edges, visual clutter occurs caused by many edge crossings
  • animation leads to cognitive efforts for a viewer to preserve his mental map
  • sophisticated layout algorithms are needed to circumvent the two former mentioned problems that have a high run time complexity

Timeline-Based Diagrams

In our research we avoid a time-to-time mapping and encode the time dimension into space instead. We use stacked graphical color coded elements to show weighted time-varying relations and we show links only implicitly by different orientations instead of direct explicit links as in node-link diagrams.

Layered TimeRadarTrees visualization showing more than 6,000,000 data points of an evolving directed and weighted graph
TimeRadarTrees visualization for soccer match results of 14 years in a part of Europe
The thumbnail view for the goalkeeper showing all weighted relations to all other players in a specific time interval

Our approach allows easily exploring a time-varying graph data set for trends, countertrends, and anomalies and has many benefits:

  • visual clutter is reduced by showing the links implicitly
  • cognitive efforts are reduced and the mental map is preserved by using static images
  • interactive features can easily be applied
  • run time complexities are reduced and graphs can be added on-the-fly.

Publications

2014

Visual Adjacency Lists for Dynamic Graphs
Hlawatsch, Marcel; Burch, Michael; Weiskopf, Daniel: Visual Adjacency Lists for Dynamic Graphs. In: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics (2014).
[XPS] [PDF] [DOI] [OpenXML] [BibTeX] [Slides] [Details]
The State of the Art in Visualizing Dynamic Graphs
Beck, Fabian; Burch, Michael; Diehl, Stephan; Weiskopf, Daniel: The State of the Art in Visualizing Dynamic Graphs. In: EuroVis STAR (to appear).
[XPS] [PDF] [DOI] [OpenXML] [BibTeX] [Slides] [Details]
A Dynamic Graph Visualization Perspective on Eye Movement Data
Burch, Michael; Beck, Fabian; Raschke, Michael; Blascheck, Tanja; Weiskopf, Daniel: A Dynamic Graph Visualization Perspective on Eye Movement Data. In: ETRA '14, 2014.
[XPS] [PDF] [DOI] [OpenXML] [BibTeX] [Slides] [Details]
Visualizing Hierarchy Changes by Dynamic Indented Plots
Burch, Michael; Blascheck, Tanja; Louka, Christine; Weiskopf, Daniel: Visualizing Hierarchy Changes by Dynamic Indented Plots. In: Proceedings of IVAPP 2014, 2014.
[XPS] [PDF] [DOI] [OpenXML] [BibTeX] [Slides] [Details]

2013

Matching Application Requirements with Dynamic Graph Visualization Profiles
Beck, Fabian; Burch, Michael; Diehl, Stephan: Matching Application Requirements with Dynamic Graph Visualization Profiles. In: IV '13: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Information Visualisation, pp. 11-18, 2013.
[XPS] [PDF] [DOI] [OpenXML] [BibTeX] [Slides] [Details]
Exploring Spatio-Temporal Data Modeled as Dynamic Weighted Relations
Burch, Michael; Raschke, Michael; Weiskopf, Daniel: Exploring Spatio-Temporal Data Modeled as Dynamic Weighted Relations. In: Proceedings of the KI 2013 Workshop "Visual and Spatial Cognition", 2013.
[XPS] [PDF] [DOI] [OpenXML] [BibTeX] [Slides] [Details]
Radial Layered Matrix Visualization of Dynamic Graphs
Vehlow, Corinna; Burch, Michael; Schmauder, Hansjörg; Weiskopf, Daniel: Radial Layered Matrix Visualization of Dynamic Graphs. In: Proceedings of 17th International Conference on Information Visualization (IV), pp. 51-58, 2013.
[XPS] [PDF] [DOI] [OpenXML] [BibTeX] [Slides] [Details]

2012

Rapid Serial Visual Presentation in Dynamic Graph Visualization
Beck, Fabian; Burch, Michael; Vehlow, Corinna; Diehl, Stephan; Weiskopf, Daniel: Rapid Serial Visual Presentation in Dynamic Graph Visualization. In: IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing (VL/HCC 2012), pp. 185-192, 2012.
[XPS] [PDF] [DOI] [OpenXML] [BibTeX] [Slides] [Details]
Radial Edge Splatting for Visualizing Dynamic Directed Graphs
Burch, Michael; Beck, Fabian; Weiskopf, Daniel: Radial Edge Splatting for Visualizing Dynamic Directed Graphs. In: IVAPP '12: Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Visualization Theory and Applications, pp. 603-612, 2012.
[XPS] [PDF] [DOI] [OpenXML] [BibTeX] [Slides] [Details]
Visualizing Dynamic Call Graphs
Burch, Michael; Müller, Christoph; Reina, Guido; Schmauder, Hansjörg; Greis, Miriam; Weiskopf, Daniel: Visualizing Dynamic Call Graphs. In: Vision, Modeling & Visualization, pp. 207-214, 2012.
[XPS] [PDF] [DOI] [OpenXML] [BibTeX] [Slides] [Details]

2011

Parallel Edge Splatting for Scalable Dynamic Graph Visualization
Burch, Michael; Vehlow, Corinna; Beck, Fabian; Diehl, Stephan; Weiskopf, Daniel: Parallel Edge Splatting for Scalable Dynamic Graph Visualization. In: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics: No. 12 (2011), pp. 2344-2353.
[XPS] [PDF] [DOI] [OpenXML] [BibTeX] [Slides] [Details]
Burch, Michael; Höferlin, Markus; Weiskopf, Daniel: Layered TimeRadarTrees. In: Proceedings of 15th International Conference on Information Visualization (IV), pp. 18-25, 2011.
[XPS] [PDF] [DOI] [OpenXML] [BibTeX] [Slides] [Details]
Visualizing Dynamic Quantitative Data in Hierarchies. TimeEdgeTrees: Attaching Dynamic Weights to Tree Edges
Burch, Michael; Weiskopf, Daniel: Visualizing Dynamic Quantitative Data in Hierarchies. TimeEdgeTrees: Attaching Dynamic Weights to Tree Edges. In: Proceedings of International Conference on Visualization Theory and Applications, pp. 177-186, 2011.
[XPS] [PDF] [DOI] [OpenXML] [BibTeX] [Slides] [Details]

2010

TimeSpiderTrees: A Novel Visual Metaphor for Dynamic Compound Graphs
Burch, Michael; Fritz, Peter; Beck, Fabian; Diehl, Stephan: TimeSpiderTrees: A Novel Visual Metaphor for Dynamic Compound Graphs. In: VL/HCC ‘10: Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing, pp. 168-175, 2010.
[XPS] [PDF] [DOI] [OpenXML] [BibTeX] [Slides] [Details]

2009

Towards an Aesthetic Dimensions Framework for Dynamic Graph Visualization
Beck, Fabian; Burch, Michael; Diehl, Stephan: Towards an Aesthetic Dimensions Framework for Dynamic Graph Visualization. In: IV '09: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Information Visualisation, pp. 592-597, 2009.
[XPS] [PDF] [DOI] [OpenXML] [BibTeX] [Slides] [Details]

2008

Timeline Trees: Visualizing Sequences of Transactions in Information Hierarchies
Burch, Michael; Beck, Fabian; Diehl, Stephan: Timeline Trees: Visualizing Sequences of Transactions in Information Hierarchies. In: AVI '08: Proceedings of the Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces, pp. 75-82, 2008.
[XPS] [PDF] [DOI] [OpenXML] [BibTeX] [Slides] [Details]
Cartesian vs. Radial - A Comparative Evaluation of Two Visualization Tools
Burch, Michael; Bott, Felix; Beck, Fabian; Diehl, Stephan: Cartesian vs. Radial - A Comparative Evaluation of Two Visualization Tools. In: ISVC '08: Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Advances in Visual Computing, pp. 151-160, 2008.
[XPS] [PDF] [DOI] [OpenXML] [BibTeX] [Slides] [Details]