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Dynamic Graph Visualization

Introduction

Timeline Trees visualization for a market basket data set showing 5 transactions

Visualizing dynamic directed and weighted graphs with an additional hierarchical organization of the graph vertices is a challenging task. Many data dimensions have to be represented at the same time:

  • the graph vertices
  • the adjacency edges induced by the graph
  • the weights of the adjacency edges
  • the inclusion edges induced by the hierarchy
  • the evolution of the graph over time

Traditional approaches use a time-to-time mapping and show the time-varying graph data as animated sequences of node-link diagrams. Though this visualization strategy is very intuitive it also has some drawbacks:

  • if the graphs are very dense, i.e. have many edges, visual clutter occurs caused by many edge crossings
  • animation leads to cognitive efforts for a viewer to preserve his mental map
  • sophisticated layout algorithms are needed to circumwent the two former mentioned problems that have a high run time complexity

Research

In our research we avoid a time-to-time mapping and encode the time dimension into space instead. We use stacked graphical color coded elements to show weighted time-varying relations and we show links only implicitly by different orientations instead of direct explicit links as in node-link diagrams.

 

Layered TimeRadarTrees visualization showing more than 6,000,000 data points of an evolving directed and weighted graph
TimeRadarTrees visualization for soccer match results of 14 years in a part of Europe
The thumbnail view for the goalkeeper showing all weighted relations to all other players in a specific time interval

 

Our approach allows to easily explore a time-varying graph data set for trends, countertrends, and anomalies and has many benefits:

  • visual clutter is reduced by showing the links implicitly
  • cognitive efforts are reduced and the mental map is preserved by using static images
  • interactive features can easily be applied
  • run time complexities are reduced and graphs can be added on-the-fly.

Publications

2014

The State of the Art in Visualizing Dynamic Graphs
Beck, Fabian; Burch, Michael; Diehl, Stephan; Weiskopf, Daniel: The State of the Art in Visualizing Dynamic Graphs. In: EuroVis STAR (Noch nicht erschienen).
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Generalized Pythagoras Trees for Visualizing Hierarchies
Beck, Fabian; Burch, Michael; Munz, Tanja; Di Silvestro, Lorenzo; Weiskopf, Daniel: Generalized Pythagoras Trees for Visualizing Hierarchies. In: IVAPP '14: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Information Visualization Theory and Application, S. 17-28, 2014.
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A Dynamic Graph Visualization Perspective on Eye Movement Data
Burch, Michael; Beck, Fabian; Raschke, Michael; Blascheck, Tanja; Weiskopf, Daniel: A Dynamic Graph Visualization Perspective on Eye Movement Data. In: ETRA '14, 2014.
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Visualizing Hierarchy Changes by Dynamic Indented Plots
Burch, Michael; Blascheck, Tanja; Louka, Christine; Weiskopf, Daniel: Visualizing Hierarchy Changes by Dynamic Indented Plots. In: Proceedings of IVAPP 2014, 2014.
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Saccade Plots
Burch, Michael; Schmauder, Hansjoerg; Raschke, Michael; Weiskopf, Daniel: Saccade Plots. In: ETRA '14 (Noch nicht erschienen).
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Visual Analysis of Time-Dependent Multivariate Data from Dairy Farming Industry
Di Silvestro, Lorenzo; Burch, Michael; Caccamo, Margherita; Weiskopf, Daniel; Beck, Fabian; Gallo, Giovanni: Visual Analysis of Time-Dependent Multivariate Data from Dairy Farming Industry. In: IVAPP '14: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Information Visualization Theory and Application, S. 99-106, 2014.
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A Visual Approach for Scan Path Comparison
Raschke, Michael; Herr, Dominik; Blascheck, Tanja; Burch, Michael; Schrauf, Michael; Willmann, Sven; Ertl, Thomas: A Visual Approach for Scan Path Comparison. In: ETRA '14, 2014.
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2013

Scale-Stack Bar Charts
Hlawatsch, Marcel; Sadlo, Filip; Burch, Michael; Weiskopf, Daniel: Scale-Stack Bar Charts. In: Computer Graphics Forum: Nr. 3 (2013), S. 181-190.
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Visual Analysis of Eye Tracking Data
Raschke, Michael; Blascheck, Tanja; Burch, Michael: Visual Analysis of Eye Tracking Data. In: Weidong Huang: Handbook of Human Centric Visualization. New York, USA: Springer, 2013.
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Matching Application Requirements with Dynamic Graph Visualization Profiles
Beck, Fabian; Burch, Michael; Diehl, Stephan: Matching Application Requirements with Dynamic Graph Visualization Profiles. In: IV '13: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Information Visualisation, S. 11-18, 2013.
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Visual Comparison of Time-Varying Athletes' Performance
Beck, Fabian; Burch, Michael; Weiskopf, Daniel: Visual Comparison of Time-Varying Athletes' Performance. In: SportVis '13 Workshop, 2013.
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Visual Task Solution Strategies in Tree Diagrams
Burch, Michael; Andrienko, Gennady L.; Andrienko, Natalia V.; Höferlin, Markus; Raschke, Michael; Weiskopf, Daniel: Visual Task Solution Strategies in Tree Diagrams. In: Proceedings of the IEEE PacificVIS 2013, S. 169-176, 2013.
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Prefix Tag Clouds
Burch, Michael; Lohmann, Steffen; Weiskopf, Daniel: Prefix Tag Clouds. In: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Information Visualisation (IV 2013), S. 45-50, 2013.
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Exploring Spatio-Temporal Data Modeled as Dynamic Weighted Relations
Burch, Michael; Raschke, Michael; Weiskopf, Daniel: Exploring Spatio-Temporal Data Modeled as Dynamic Weighted Relations. In: Proceedings of the KI 2013 Workshop "Visual and Spatial Cognition", 2013.
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Radial Layered Matrix Visualization of Dynamic Graphs
Vehlow, Corinna; Burch, Michael; Schmauder, Hansjörg; Weiskopf, Daniel: Radial Layered Matrix Visualization of Dynamic Graphs. In: Proceedings of 17th International Conference on Information Visualization (IV), S. 51-58, 2013.
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2012

Müller, Christoph; Reina, Guido; Burch, Michael; Weiskopf, Daniel: Large-Scale Visualization Projects for Teaching Software Engineering. In: Computer Graphics and Applications: Nr. 4 (2012), S. 14-19.
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Andrienko, Natalia V.; Andrienko, Gennady L.; Burch, Michael; Weiskopf, Daniel: Visual Analytics Methodology for Eye Movement Studies. In: IEEE Conference on Visual Analytics Science and Technology (VAST) (Noch nicht erschienen).
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Rapid Serial Visual Presentation in Dynamic Graph Visualization
Beck, Fabian; Burch, Michael; Vehlow, Corinna; Diehl, Stephan; Weiskopf, Daniel: Rapid Serial Visual Presentation in Dynamic Graph Visualization. In: IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing (VL/HCC 2012), S. 185-192, 2012.
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Radial Edge Splatting for Visualizing Dynamic Directed Graphs
Burch, Michael; Beck, Fabian; Weiskopf, Daniel: Radial Edge Splatting for Visualizing Dynamic Directed Graphs. In: IVAPP '12: Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Visualization Theory and Applications, S. 603-612, 2012.
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Visualizing Dynamic Call Graphs
Burch, Michael; Müller, Christoph; Reina, Guido; Schmauder, Hansjörg; Greis, Miriam; Weiskopf, Daniel: Visualizing Dynamic Call Graphs. In: Vision, Modeling & Visualization, S. 207-214, 2012.
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Enriching Indented Pixel Tree Plots with Node-Oriented Quantitative, Categorical, Relational, and Time-Series Data
Burch, Michael; Raschke, Michael; Greis, Miriam; Weiskopf, Daniel: Enriching Indented Pixel Tree Plots with Node-Oriented Quantitative, Categorical, Relational, and Time-Series Data. In: Diagrammatic Representation and Inference - 7th International Conference, Diagrams 2012, Canterbury, UK, July 2-6, 2012. Proceedings., S. 102-116, 2012.
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Lohmann, Steffen; Burch, Michael; Schmauder, Hansjörg; Weiskopf, Daniel: Visual Analysis of Microblog Content Using Time-Varying Co-occurrence Highlighting in Tag Clouds. In: Proceedings of the International Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces (AVI '12), S. 753-756, 2012.
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Spectral Analysis of Higher-Order and BFECC Texture Advection
Netzel, Rudolf; Ament, Marco; Burch, Michael; Weiskopf, Daniel: Spectral Analysis of Higher-Order and BFECC Texture Advection. In: Workshop on Vision, Modeling and Visualization (VMV) (Noch nicht erschienen).
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2011

Burch, Michael; Heinrich, Julian; Konevtsova, Natalia; Höferlin, Markus; Weiskopf, Daniel: Evaluation of Traditional, Orthogonal, and Radial Tree Diagrams by an Eye Tracking Study. In: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics: Nr. 6 (2011), S. 2440–2448.
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Parallel Edge Splatting for Scalable Dynamic Graph Visualization
Burch, Michael; Vehlow, Corinna; Beck, Fabian; Diehl, Stephan; Weiskopf, Daniel: Parallel Edge Splatting for Scalable Dynamic Graph Visualization. In: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics: Nr. 12 (2011), S. 2344-2353.
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Burch, Michael; Höferlin, Markus; Weiskopf, Daniel: Layered TimeRadarTrees. In: Proceedings of 15th International Conference on Information Visualization (IV), S. 18-25, 2011.
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Evaluating Partially Drawn Links for Directed Graph Edges
Burch, Michael; Vehlow, Corinna; Konevtsova, Natalia; Weiskopf, Daniel: Evaluating Partially Drawn Links for Directed Graph Edges. In: In 19th International Symposium on Graph Drawing (Noch nicht erschienen).
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Visualizing Dynamic Quantitative Data in Hierarchies. TimeEdgeTrees: Attaching Dynamic Weights to Tree Edges
Burch, Michael; Weiskopf, Daniel: Visualizing Dynamic Quantitative Data in Hierarchies. TimeEdgeTrees: Attaching Dynamic Weights to Tree Edges. In: Proceedings of International Conference on Visualization Theory and Applications, S. 177-186, 2011.
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BiCluster Viewer: A Visualization Tool for Analyzing Gene Expression Data
Heinrich, Julian; Seifert, Julian; Burch, Michael; Weiskopf, Daniel: BiCluster Viewer: A Visualization Tool for Analyzing Gene Expression Data. In: Proceedings of International Symposium on Visual Computing (ISVC), S. 641–652, 2011.
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Edge Bundling without Reducing the Source to Target Traceability
Beck, Fabian; Puppe, Martin; Braun, Patrick; Burch, Michael; Diehl, Stephan: Edge Bundling without Reducing the Source to Target Traceability. In: InfoVis '11, 2011.
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2010

Uncovering Strengths and Weaknesses of Radial Visualizations---an Empirical Approach
Diehl, Stephan; Beck, Fabian; Burch, Michael: Uncovering Strengths and Weaknesses of Radial Visualizations---an Empirical Approach. In: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics: Nr. 6 (2010), S. 935-942.
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TimeSpiderTrees: A Novel Visual Metaphor for Dynamic Compound Graphs
Burch, Michael; Fritz, Peter; Beck, Fabian; Diehl, Stephan: TimeSpiderTrees: A Novel Visual Metaphor for Dynamic Compound Graphs. In: VL/HCC ‘10: Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing, S. 168-175, 2010.
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Indented Pixel Tree Plots
Burch, Michael; Raschke, Michael; Weiskopf, Daniel: Indented Pixel Tree Plots. In: International Symposium on Visual Computing, 2010.
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Subversion Statistics Sifter
Müller, Christoph; Reina, Guido; Burch, Michael; Weiskopf, Daniel: Subversion Statistics Sifter. In: Proceedings of International Symposium on Visual Computing (ISVC 2010), S. 447-457, 2010.
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2009

Visualizing the Evolution of Compound Digraphs with TimeArcTrees
Greilich, Martin; Burch, Michael; Diehl, Stephan: Visualizing the Evolution of Compound Digraphs with TimeArcTrees. In: Comput. Graph. Forum: Nr. 3 (2009), S. 975-982.
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2008

Burch, Michael; Diehl, Stephan: Visualizing Dynamic Compound Digraphs. In: Comput. Graph. Forum: Nr. 3 (2008), S. 823-830.
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Timeline Trees: Visualizing Sequences of Transactions in Information Hierarchies
Burch, Michael; Beck, Fabian; Diehl, Stephan: Timeline Trees: Visualizing Sequences of Transactions in Information Hierarchies. In: AVI '08: Proceedings of the Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces, S. 75-82, 2008.
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Cartesian vs. Radial - A Comparative Evaluation of Two Visualization Tools
Burch, Michael; Bott, Felix; Beck, Fabian; Diehl, Stephan: Cartesian vs. Radial - A Comparative Evaluation of Two Visualization Tools. In: ISVC '08: Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Advances in Visual Computing, S. 151-160, 2008.
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